Electrochemical Glossary

Electrochemical Glossary

Laboratory Of Research & Development, BAS Inc.
Professor Noriyuki Watanabe



A - C

Vocabulary Commentary
What is Amperometry? Amperometry A type of voltammetry. A method of measuring the flowing current with a constant potential applied to the electrodes.
What is Anode? Anode An electrode that is in a state where an electrochemical oxidation reaction occurs.
What is Anode polarization? Anode polarization Applying a positive direction potential to the electrode, so that an oxidation reaction occurs.
What is ASV? ASV Anode stripping Voltammetry. A cathode potential is applied for a certain period of time to deposit metal ions on the electrode. After that, the electrodeposited metal is redissolved by sweeping the potential in the anode direction, the oxidation current is measured, and the metal is qualitatively and quantified. One of the extremely sensitive analysis methods.
What is Auxiliary electrode? Auxiliary electrode Also known as a counter electrode. Electrochemical measurements are not possible using only one working electrode. At least two electrodes are required. Together with the working electrode, they form the circuit that closes the current.
What is Background current? Background current In the current flowing through the electrode, an excess current will flow in addition to the target Faraday current. A double electric layer is formed at the interface between the electrode and the solution. That is, the capacitance (capacitor, capacitor). The charge stored in the capacitor is capacitance x voltage (charge = capacitance x voltage, Q=CxE). Changing the electrode potential means giving the potential a time change. In other words, the charge changes with time, i.e. current flows (dQ/dt=CdE/dt). This is the capacitive current or charge current. As long as the electrode potential changes with time, the capacitive current is unavoidable. This is one of the reasons for the background current.
What is Bulk electrolysis? Bulk electrolysis To electrolyze all the target components in the electrolytic solution into a product.
What is Capacitive current? Capacitive current See charging current.
What is Carbon nanotube? Carbon nanotube Nanoscale carbon with a single sheet of graphite closed in a tube shape. Some consist of one sheet, while others consist of several sheets concentrically formed into tubes. One of the nanotechnology that has attracted a lot of attention because of its interesting properties.
What is Caromel electrode? Caromel electrode One of the reference electrodes. It consists of mercury/mercury chloride , an also known as calomel electrode.
What is Cathode? Cathode An electrode on which electrochemical reduction reactions occurs.
What is Charge? Charge Electrons have a negative charge. If the molecular species is excessive in electrons, it will be negatively charged, and if it is insufficient, it will be positively charged.
What is Charging current? Charging current Also called capacitive current. A current flows in proportion to the magnitude of the time change of the potential and the double layer capacitance. Since it is not a Faraday current, it usually interferes with the measurement. This charging current always accompanies a constant potential sweep such as CV.
What is Chronoamperometry? Chronoamperometry A stepwise potential is applied from the potential at which electrolysis does not occur to the potential at which electrolysis occurs, and the current after the applied potential is measured. The current decays as the reciprocal of the square root of time. When the reciprocal of the square root of time is plotted on the horizontal axis and the current is plotted on the vertical axis, parameters such as diffusion coefficient can be obtained from the slope.
What is Chronoculometry? Chronoculometry The chronograph coulombic method (CC) is part of the coulombic method. It measures the change in Coulombic charge over time and is the current integral for the chronocurrent method (CA). Therefore, it belongs to the category of pulsed voltammetry. In addition to giving the same information as CA, it also gives information about adsorption. The coulometric method includes these, but refers more to the coulometric measurements made by bulk electrolysis.
What is Chronopotentiometry? Chronopotentiometry A constant oxidation or reduction current is passed and the time change of the potential is measured. When the concentration of the reducing or oxidizing substance on the electrode surface becomes zero, the potential changes rapidly. The time required for this potential change is called the transition time, from which the diffusion coefficient or concentration can be obtained.
What is Comparison electrode? Comparison electrode A reference electrode.
What is Concentration gradient? Concentration gradient The spatially decreasing concentration difference is called a concentration gradient.
What is Constant potential? Constant potential The potential applied is in constant.
What is Convection voltammetry? Convection voltammetry Ordinary voltammetry is performed when the solution is at rest. This is to avoid, as far as possible, material transport caused by the solution flow. On the other hand, convective voltammetry is an attempt to actively exploit the flow characteristics of the solution. Typical examples are the rotating electrode method and the HPLC detection method.
What is Corrosion? Corrosion When the dissolution of metal (anode reaction), the reduction of dissolved oxygen (cathode reaction, apparently no water, and only moisture) and the reduction of hydrogen ions (cathode reaction) occur on the metal . The electrons liberated in the anode reaction are used in the cathode reaction. This constitutes a local battery, and in this way metal anode dissolution, that is, corrosion occurs.
What is Coulometry? Coulometry A method of integrating the amount of current over time and measuring it as the amount of electric charge. Since the amount of charge is proportional to the number of molecules, the absolute number of molecules can be known.
What is Counter electrode? Counter electrode Electrodes paired with the working electrode. Electrochemical measurements require at least two electrodes. The electrode that causes an electrochemical reaction to the target object is the working electrode, and the pair of electrodes is the pair of electrodes. It is absolutely necessary to allow current to flow through the working electrode. The voltage regulator precisely regulates the potential of the working electrode, but the voltage of the counter electrode will fluctuate depending on the current.
What is Crystal oscillator? Crystal oscillator The piezoelectric effect of the crystal can be used to generate oscillating circuits with high frequency accuracy. It is used to measure small weight changes, such as QCM.
What is CV? CV Abbreviation for Cyclic Voltammetry.
What is Cyclic voltammetry? Cyclic voltammetry Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) is the most commonly used method for electrochemical studies. The method controls the electrode potentials at different scan rates, repeatedly scanned once or several times over time in a triangular waveform, the potential range is such that different reduction and oxidation reactions can occur alternately on the electrode, and a current-potential curve is recorded. Based on the shape of the curves, the degree of reversibility of the electrode reactions, the possibility of intermediates, phase boundary adsorption or new phase formation, and the nature of the coupled chemical reactions can be determined.
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D - F

Vocabulary Commentary
What is Diffusion? Diffusion One of the ways in which substances are transported. Driven by a concentration gradient, a molecular substance moves from a high concentration to a low concentration.
What is Diffusion domination? Diffusion domination When the electron transfer rate is high, the total reaction rate is determined by the diffusion rate. This is called diffusion dominationor diffusion rate control.
What is Dissolved oxygen? Dissolved oxygen Oxygen dissolved in the solution. Since it is electrochemically reduced, it often interferes with the measurement. When it gets in the way, it is temporarily removed by bubbled with an inert gas such as nitrogen.
What is DPV? DPV Derivative pulse voltammetry . When a potential pulse witha short time widthis applied, the charging current attenuates faster than the Faraday current. By setting the current sampling in the latter half of the applied pulse, the contribution of the charging current can be almost ignored. One of the pulse methods that can obtain the highest detection sensitivity along with SWV.
What is E process? E process The electron transfer process.
What is EC process? EC process A process in which an electron transfer process and an in-solution chemical reaction process of its product occur continuously.
What is ECE process? ECE process This refers to the case where the chemical reaction product in solution is accompanied by an electron transfer process by an electrochemical reaction at the electrode following the EC process.
What is Electric double layer? Electric double layer Depending on the excess or deficient state of charge on the electrode surface, an over-arranged state of electrolyte ions (+ or - ions) is created to maintain electrical neutralization on the solution side at the interface with the solution, resulting in the formation of an electrical double layer.
What is Electrochemical impedance method? Electrochemical impedance method A method for analyzing an electrochemical system by measuring AC impedance . In many cases, the analysis is carried out by replacing various elementary processes such as interfacial electron transfer, substance diffusion, charge charge / discharge, ion transfer, and electrical conductivity of the medium with equivalent circuits composed of electronic circuit elements and diffusion elements. An analytical method is also performed to mathematically represent phenomena, from which impedances are calculated and then compared to actual measurements.
What is Electrochemical window? Electrochemical window The potential range in which the electrodes can be polarized.
What is Electrolysis? Electrolysis The use of electrodes to perform oxidation-reduction processes.
What is Electron spin resonance spectroscopy? Electron spin resonance spectroscopy Electrons are subatomic particles with spin=1/2 and a negative charge. Molecular species with unpaired electrons (unpaired electrons) are called radicals and are subject to electron spin resonance (ESR). The energy levels of unpaired electrons are split in a magnetic field and the electrons are transferred between the levels by the absorption of electromagnetic waves. This is called ESR. Normally, electromagnetic waves in the microwave range are used in ESR. The obtained spectra are used to analyze the spin density distribution and structure of organic and transition metal compounds. Radicals can be generated by electrode reactions and are used in a coupled form such as EC-ESR.
What is EQCM? EQCM Abbreviation for Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance. A method that combines QCM with electrochemistry. A crystal unit with a gold electrode deposited on it is used. The adsorption and precipitation on the electrodes, and the weight change and electrochemical reaction process due to their elution can be observed at the same time.
What is Equivalent circuit? Equivalent circuit One of the impedance analysis methods that reconstructs a circuit by decomposing phenomena including electrochemical reactions into various elementary processes by impedance measurement and replacing them with electronic circuit elements (resistors, capacitors, inductances), Warburg elements, and other elements.
What is ESR? ESR Abbreviation for Electron Spin Resonance. Electron spin resonance.
What is Faraday cage? Faraday cage A device that constitutes a closed space with metal containers at the same potential to prevent external noise.
What is Faraday's Law? Faraday's Law A certain amount of charge corresponds to a certain amount of molecular equivalent. 96500 coulombs are equivalent to one molecule.
What is Fuel cell? Fuel cell The oxidation of molecular hydrogen occurs at the anode and the reduction of molecular oxygen occurs at the cathode, making it possible to extract the free energy change of the reaction that generates water from hydrogen and oxygen as electrical energy.
What is Function generator? Function generator Function generator. A function for time (eg triangular, square, pulsed, stepped, etc.). Use these waveforms as the external input of the potentiostat . At present, a potentiostat integrated with this is commercially available.
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G - I

Vocabulary Commentary
What is Galvanostat? Galvanostat A device that can output a constant current.
What is Glassy carbon? Glassy carbon Typical carbon electrode. Hard and dense. A wide potential window in the oxidation and reduction directions facilitates its use in electrochemistry. It is generally considered to have an entangled microstructure of ribbon-like graphite bands. Its surface can be interpreted as a random mixture of edge layers and substrates.
What is Hemispherical diffusion? Hemispherical diffusion For microelectrodes , planar diffusion is predominant to spherical diffusion. Microband array electrodes such as comb-shaped electrodes exhibit semi-spherical diffusion in a semi-cylindrical shape.
What is HOPG? HOPG Highly Ordered (Oriented) Abbreviation for Pyrolytic Graphite. Highly oriented pyrographite.
What is Impedance? Impedance The amount obtained in relation to voltage/current. In direct current, it refers to resistance, but in alternating current, the amount obtained from this relationship is called impedance.
What is Interdigitated array electrode? Interdigitated array electrode Two tiny forked-finger electrodes made by photolithography opposite each other. The redox reversible system allows for the oxidation (or reduction) of substances on one electrode and their reduction (or oxidation) on the other electrode (thus achieving a redox cycle, which increases detection sensitivity).
What is Ion? Ion When an electron escapes from a metal, it becomes a + ion. When an electron is deprived or added from a neutral molecule, it becomes a + ion or a - ion, respectively. Even in metals, ferrocyanate ions and permanganate ions are - ions in total. The states in which there are extra or insufficient electrons from the neutral state are called - ions and + ions, respectively.
What is IPPG (Ion Permeability Porous Glass)? IPPG IPPG (Ion Permeability Porous Glass) is a glass with many pores. It has excellent water absorption and adsorption properties and can be used in filters, translucent films, catalysts, desiccants, etc. In the field of electrochemistry, it is often used as a reference electrode liquid joint material. In the field of electrochemistry, it is often used as a reference electrode in the liquid joint material.
What is iR drop? iR drop The voltage drop created by the current flowing between the working electrode and the counter electrode due to the solution resistance between the working electrode and the reference electrode (i is the current and R is the resistance, the result of the so-called Ohm's Law). Since the potentiostat cannot control this potential (thus, this resistance is also called the uncompensated solution resistance), the externally specified potential will not be accurately applied to the working electrode. The positive feedback function of the potentiostat, which is provided to compensate for this, allows for a certain degree of compensation.
What is ISFET? ISFET Abbreviation for Ion Sensitive Field Effect Transistor. An ion-selective field-effect transistor. A typical pH sensor. Small solid pH meters are commercially available.
What is ITO? ITO Abbreviation for Indium-Tin Oxide. An indium oxide film formed on a glass substrate. Used as a light transparent electrode.
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J - M

Vocabulary Commentary
What is Laplace equation? Laplace equation This is the case where the Laplacian is set to zero in the second-order partial differential equation that describes the phenomenon in the steady state. A function that satisfies this equation is called a harmonic function. Both the real part and the imaginary part of the holomorphic function are harmonic functions. In two dimensions, it is expressed as follows.
What is Ligand? Ligand A compound in which a ligand is coordinated around a metal. For example, Ru(bpy)32+, a six-coordinated octahedral complex with three bipyridines, which is a bidentate ligand, coordinated around a ruthenium ion.
What is Liquid-liquid interface? Liquid-liquid interface The interface between two immiscible liquids (such as water and dichloroethane). Electrolytes containing common ions with different concentrations can be polarized by dissolving them in two liquids, and electrodes placed in the two liquids can change the polarization potential and move the ions across the interface (Ions mobile voltanmetry).
What is Luggin capillary? Luggin capillary A prop to make a reference electrode work the same way as a reference electrode placed in the vicinity of the working electrode. The reference electrode is placed in a glass tube with a thin and curved tip. The tip of the glass tube is placed near the working electrode. The glass tip has the same potential as the working electrode, and since no current flows through the glass capillary, the reference electrode also has the same potential.
What is Microelectrode? Microelectrode When the electrode size is about 10 microns or less, spherical diffusion occurs preferentially and the efficiency of material transport is significantly increased compared to planar diffusion. Although the absolute value of the current decreases, the current density increases by an order of magnitude. In addition, there are some excellent features, one of which is the ability to obtain a constant sigmoid-shaped CV curve.
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N - R

Vocabulary Commentary
What is Nernst equation? Nernst equation An equation that defines the relationship between the concentration of the electrode active material and the electrode potential.
What is NHE? NHE Abbreviation for normal hydrogen electrode. Indicated platinum black electrodes under a hydrogen gas 1 atm in the strong acid concentration 1 mol/L, its potential defined as the potential base of zero (Previously used and not used in current).
What is Noise? Noise A messy signal that interferes with the desired signal.
What is Non-Polarizable Electrode? Non-Polarizable Electrode An electrode where the electrode reaction is continuous and the potential cannot be changed arbitrarily. Hydrogen electrodes (platinum black/hydrogen ion/hydrogen gas), silver/silver chloride electrodes, calomel electrode, etc. are used as reference electrodes.
What is Op amp? Op amp A DC amplifier with a large amplification degree in a wide frequency range, an extremely large input impedance of the two input terminals, and a small output impedance (the amplification degree is large even in direct current. The AC amplifier cannot function as an operational amplifier). Due to these features, various active circuits can be made. Normally, it is used by applying feedback from the output side to the input side, and it is used for various functions (functions, arithmetic. Operational amplifier is an abbreviation for operational amplifier and operational amplifier), inverting amplifier, voltage hollower, addition, subtraction, Integration, differentiation, various filters and more are available. Potentiostat, by potentiostat, etc., electrochemical measurements are receiving great benefit.
What is Organic EL? Organic EL It emits light by means of excitons generated by the recombination of electrons and holes injected into an organic material. The mechanism is similar to that of a light-emitting diode. It has been attracting attention as a thin display material.
What is Oxidation? Oxidation Oxidation is the reaction that captures electrons from a molecular species. Reduction, in contrast, is a reaction that gives electrons to a molecular species.
What is PEEK? PEEK Abbreviation for Poly Ether Ether Ketone. polymer. A polymer material with excellent properties such as chemical resistance, heat resistance, abrasion resistance, and good moldability. It is used as a material for HPLC piping tubes and chemical instruments.
What is PFC? PFC Abbreviation for Plastic Formed Carbon. Carbon produced by highly orienting graphite powder to align the Edge plane with good electrode characteristics in one direction and exposing it to the electrode surface, and by forming a composite with glassy carbon to prevent the electrolytic solution from penetrating. Material.
What is Photoelectrochemistry? Photoelectrochemistry Refers to the general method of combining electrochemistry and light. There are also synthesis aspects, such as the use of optical methods (such as ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy) to analyze electrochemical reaction products, as well as the effective use of solar energy represented by semiconductor electrodes.
What is Planar diffusion? Planar diffusion For large electrodes, diffusion is predominant in the direction perpendicular to the electrode plane.
What is Polarizable electrode? Polarizable electrode An electrode that has a potential range in which current does not flow even when a potential is applied. Platinum, gold, carbon electrodes, etc.
What is Polarization? Polarization A state in which current does not flow steadily even when an electric potential is applied.
What is Polarography? Polarography It may mean voltammetry by broadly polarization it, but from its historical role, it is narrowly voltammetry with a mercury electrode as a working electrode.
What is Potential? Potential It is the energy state of the electrons. If the potential of the electrode is shifted toward the negative direction, the energy state of the electrons in the electrode is raised, and therefore the electrons are easily transferred to the molecules, i.e., facilitates the reduction of molecular species in solution. Conversely, if the potential of the electrode is shifted toward the positive direction, the energy state of the electrons in the electrode is lowered and the electrons in the molecule are easily transferred to the electrode, i.e., the oxidation of molecular species in solution.
What is Potentiostat? Potentiostat A device that makes the potential of the working electrode constant with respect to the reference electrode. It is designed to accurately measure the current between the working electrode and the counter electrode and prevent current from flowing to the reference electrode.
What is QCM? QCM Abbreviation for Quartz Crystal Microbalance. A method of measuring minute weight changes using a crystal oscillator as a sensor substrate.
What is Redox cycle? Redox cycle Redox continues to occur, resulting in a significant increase in current as a result of recycling.
What is Redox reaction? Redox reaction Reduction is a reaction that gives an electron to a molecular species. Oxidation is a reaction that robs a molecular species of electrons. A reaction that occurs as a pair of oxidation and reduction reactions.
What is Reduction? Reduction A reaction that provides electrons to a molecular species. Oxidation is the opposite, is a reaction that captures electrons from a molecule species.
What is Reference electrode? Reference electrode An electrode used as a reference standard in electrochemical measurements. Used as a potential reference for the working electrode.
What is Rotating ring disk electrode method? Rotating ring disk electrode method A disk-shaped electrode in the center, and a ring-shaped electrode concentrically on the outside, which rotate together. The solution on the surface of the electrode is flushed outward by the centrifugal force of the rotational movement of the electrode. To make up for it, the solution flows toward the electrodes with the axis of rotation as the central axis. The thickness of the diffusion layer on the electrode surface formed by such forced and steady mass transport depends on the rotation speed, and becomes thinner as the rotation speed increases. Reaction products at the disc electrode are detected at the outer ring electrode.
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S - Z

Vocabulary Commentary
What is Salt bridge? Salt bridge A tool used to provide electrical conduction between two solutions that you do not want to mix. An example is the agar bridge, which is made by dissolving salts (KCl, KNO3, etc.) and agar in water and solidifying them in a glass U-shaped tube.
What is Scanning Electrochemical Microscope? Scanning Electrochemical Microscope A microelectrode is used as a probe to scan the top and vicinity of the target sample. The probe current fluctuates in response to the shape, conductivity, and electrochemical properties of the sample surface. By visualizing and analyzing this fluctuation as a two-dimensional image, objective information can be obtained. The spatial resolution is dictated by the size of the probe and can range from tens of nanometers to sub-micrometers. It is promising to be used in a wide range of fields, such as corrosion, ion transfer in membranes, and the study of biomaterials.
What is SCE? SCE saturated mercury chloride electrode. One of the reference electrodes.
What is SECM? SECM Abbreviation for Scanning Electro- Chemical Microscopy. A scanning electrochemical microscope.
What is SHE? SHE Abbreviation for standard hydrogen electrode . It is a ideal redox electrode which forms the basis of the thermodynamic scale of oxidation-reduction potentials, under a hydrogen gas 1atm in the hydrogen ion activity 1 mol/L solution. It is a basis for comparison with all other electrode reactions, hydrogen's standard electrode potential (E0) is declared to be zero volts at any temperature.
What is Silver silver chloride electrode? Silver silver chloride electrode One of the reference electrodes. An electrode in which the surface of a silver wire is covered with a silver chloride precipitate and immersed in an aqueous solution containing chloride ions.
What is Solid-liquid interface? Solid-liquid interface In electrochemistry, it refers to the interface between the electrode and the electrolyte solution. Generally, a double layer capacity is formed.
What is Spherical diffusion? Spherical diffusion As the size of the electrode becomes smaller, diffusion not only increases in the direction perpendicular to the electrode (planar diffusion), but also in the direction from 0 to 180 degrees, and the transfer efficiency is improved. For microelectrodes, spherical diffusion is dominant over planar diffusion.
What is SPR? SPR Abbreviation for Surface Plasmon Resonance.
What is Supporting electrolyte? Supporting electrolyte In electrochemical measurement, the electrolyte is usually dissolved in the solution to be measured. This is called supporting electrolyte. The purpose is to give the solution electrical conductivity and to minimize the contribution of electrophoresis in mass transport so that diffusion is prioritized.
What is Surface resistivity? Surface resistivity The surface resistivity, ρs, ρs = Ω/□ or Ω/sq, is used to describe the resistivity that determines the resistance of very thin thin film materials such as ITO (about 20 nm to 200 nm). □ or sq is dimensionless (unlike the resistivity of the overall material ρb in Ω-cm). This is based on the idea that the surface resistance of an extremely thin film can ignore the contribution of the volume fraction of the film. Thus, the resistance is entirely determined by the shape of the surface. That is, the surface resistance = ρs × (L/W) (W is the width of the electrodes, L is the distance between the electrodes, and both W and L are dimensional in length, so ρs is in units of Ω/square □). That is, if the distance between the electrodes L is greater than the electrode width W, the surface resistance will be greater, and conversely, if the width W is greater than the distance between the electrodes L, the surface resistance will be less. It is the ratio of W to L that determines the surface resistance, not the size (on the other hand, in the case of the overall material, the electrode surface area S is used instead of W, so ρb is given in Ω-cm).
What is Sweep? Sweep Control the change of electrode potential with time at different rates.
What is SWV? SWV Square wave voltammetry. Similar to DPV, but the pulse waveform is equidistant.
What is Tafel plot? Tafel plot A graph of the logarithm of the absolute value of the electrolytic current against the potential . Generally, it corresponds to a steady polarization curve. It is used to analyze the reaction mechanism.
What is Three-electrode method? Three-electrode method A measurement method that combines three electrodes: a working electrode, a counter electrode and a reference electrode. This is a common method of electrochemical measurement.
What is Voltage hollower? Voltage hollower Hollower is a word that means to chase, and in ancient times it was used in the field of electronic circuit engineering, such as cathode hollower (era of vacuum tubes), emitter hollower (era of transistors), source hollower (era of FET), and so on. It is a thing. Mostly impedance conversion circuits are intended to convert high impedance to low impedance to facilitate signal handling. In the operational amplifier, the voltage hollower is a circuit whose purpose is to transmit the voltage to the subsequent stage without any change (distortion) (again, the purpose is impedance conversion).
What is Voltammetry? Voltammetry Measure current under potential regulation (constant or sweep ).
What is Voltamogram? Voltamogram The potential is plotted on the horizontal axis and the current is plotted on the vertical axis.
What is Warburg Impedance? Warburg Impedance Impedance due to diffusion process. It often appears in the low frequency region, and as the frequency decreases on the Nyquist plot, it increases with an inclination of 45 degrees with respect to the actual axis.
What is Working electrode? Working electrode An electrode that causes an electrochemical reaction of the target object when electrochemical measurement is performed.

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